Despite my general approval of certifying state law questions, as I said a while back, I'd have elected to decline to answer this question certified by the Ninth Circuit.
But one needs no reminder to recall that my vote counts for absolutely nothing. The California Supreme Court decides to answer the question. Doing so in a unanimous opinion.
The certification process took approximately two years from the date the question was certified to the date it was answered.
Imagine how long it might take if the question was a hard one.